Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat waves, and torrential rainfalls are the most powerful and obvious reminders that the climate is changing. These disasters were happening long before humans started pumping heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, but global warming has tipped the odds in their favor. A devastating heat wave like the one that killed 35,000 people in Europe in 2003, for example, is now more than 10 times more likely than it used to be. But that’s just a single event in a single place, which doesn’t say much about the world as a whole. A new analysis in Nature Climate Change, however, takes a much broader view. About 18% of heavy precipitation events worldwide and 75% of hot temperature extremes—defined as events that come only once in every thousand days, on average—can already be attributed to human activity, says the study. And as the world continues to warm, the frequency of those events is expected to double by 2100. The new research differs from other so-called extreme event attribution studies, not just in its broad-brush approach, but also in how the term “extreme” is defined. The 2003 heatwave that killed so many people in Europe, for example, was so off the charts that it would ordinarily be expected to come along only once in a thousand years without global warming. By contrast, the hot temperatures and heavy precipitation events described in the new paper would normally come along once in every three years, with both “hot” and “heavy” varying depending on what’s normal for a given location. “We think of these as ‘moderate extremes,’” lead author Erich Fischer, of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETH Zürich), said. Because these moderate extremes are by definition more common, and because the authors looked at global statistics rather than those for highly localized, rare events, the conclusions are extremely robust, said Peter Stott, leader of the Climate Monitoring and Attribution Team at the Met Office Hadley Center, in the UK. “I think this paper is very convincing,” said Stott, who was not involved in the research. Read More: Quartz
The auction has been closed.